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2022.03.01 / 01:51

[JDBC] 데이터베이스 개론, MySQL 5.1 설치

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[01] 데이터베이스 개론
- 데이터의 흐름
mysql : 중소 기업.
SQLite: 스마트폰 및 임베디드 기기의 내장 데이터베이스로 사용.
Oracle: 중대규모 기업의 데이터베이스로 사용.
MS-SQL: 중소 기업, MS기반 운영체제만 사용 가능.

   스마트폰  ----> Java Servlet ----> Server DBMS
  1번 SQLite              JSP                Oracle, MySQL
  2번 SQLite
  3번 SQLite

1. Database 와 일반 Data의 차이점
   - 데이터의 중복을 막을 수 있고 자료의 일관성을 유지할 수 있다.
   - 데이터를 쉽게 검색 할 수 있고 데이터의 통합이 쉽다.
   - 여러 사람이 함께 자료를 열람 할 수 있고 보안을 적용 하기가 쉽다.
   - Database 시스템에서 자료를 추가하거나 열람하기위해 사용하는 언어는 SQL이 있으며 SQL92, SQL99등의 표준이 있어 어떤 데이터베이스를
     이용하든 기본적인 SQL문은 같음으로 여러 데이터베이스를 이용 할 수 있다.
   - Database의 데이터는 JAVA, JSP, Android등과 같은 언어에 의해서 처리되며, 이런 언어들은 사용자가 데이터 조회가 쉽고 입출력이 편리하도록
     프로그램을 구성하는 역활을 한다.

2. 테이블(엔티티)의 구조
   - 데이터베이스의 구성요소이며 하나 이상이 존재 할 수 있다.
   - 2차원 배열의 표 형태를 가지고 있다.
   - Record는 Column의 집합이다.
   - Table(entity)은 Record의 집합이다.
   - Database는 계정과 테이블의 집합이다.
   - field: 컬럼의 값
   - domain: field의 범위
   
   number   wdate       subject      passwd   <----- 컬럼, Attribute(논리적 모델링)
   -----------------------------------------
   1        2005-01-01  안녕하세요.  123      <----- 레코드, 행, Tupple(논리적 모델링)
   2        2005-01-02  반갑습니다.  123$
   3        2005-01-01  안녕하세요.  123
   4        2005-01-02  반갑습니다.  123$
   5        2005-01-01  안녕하세요.  123
   6        2005-01-02  반갑습니다.  123$
             ↑                         ↖
             │                           테이블(Entity) 
             └------------------------------------- field(컬럼의 값)


   예) 테이블의 예: 표형태 전부 해당, 기차 시간표, 출석부, 식단표, 가격표, 엑셀 쉬트, 게시판,
                                    재고/입고/출고 관리 대장, 급여 명세서, 출근부, 각종 대장....


3. SQL 언어의 종류
  - ANSI SQL92, 99에 기준하여 각 데이터베이스상에서 SQL을 사용할 수 있다.

  - DQL(Data Query Language), 데이터 질의어, 데이터 검색, 출력과 관련된 쿼리
    . SELECT ~ FROM ~ WHERE ~ ORDER BY ~

  - DML(Data Manapulation Language), 데이터 조작어, 데이터 입력, 수정, 삭제와 관련된 쿼리
    . INSERT INTO ~ VALUES(...) ~
    . UPDATE ~ SET ~ WHERE ~
    . DELETE FROM ~ WHERE ~

  - DDL(Data Definition Language), 데이터 정의어, 테이블 생성 및 삭제,
    테이블 구조 수정과 관련된 쿼리
    . CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE

  - TCL(Transaction Control Language), 트랜잭션 제어 언어, 안정적인 데이터 처리를
    위한 데이터 처리와 관련된 명령어
    . COMMIT, ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT

  - DCL(Data Control Language)데이터 제어 언어, 권한 부여와 과련된 쿼리
    . GRANT, REVOKE
   

4. My-SQL서버의 물리적인 구성

   Linux ----------- NT <-- INTERNET(TCP/IP)
     |                       |            
     +-------+           |
     |           |          |
   MySql   MySql   MySql(DBMS)         
                          |            
                          +----------+
                          |               |
                    Account1      Account2(계정)
                          |               |   
                          |               |  
                         DB1        DB2(Database) 
                                          |
                                          +--------+
                                          |            |
                                        Table1   Table2
                                                       |
                                                       +---------+
                                                       |              |  
                                                    Reocrd1   Record 2
                                                                       |
                                                                       +----------+
                                                                       |               |  
                                                                    column1   column2


[02] MySql 5.1의 설치(5.5 설치에 불안정한 부분이 있음)
1. 설치
   ⓐ http://www.mysql.com 다운로드
      - http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.1.html#downloads
      - mysql-noinstall-5.1.52-win32.zip

   ⓑ "mysql-noinstall-5.1.52-win32.zip" 현재 폴더에 압축을 해제합니다.

   ⓒ 설치된 경로: 드라이브:/soa9/mysql51
  
   ⓓ MySQL이 설치되어 있다면 [제어판 --> 관리도구 --> 서비스]에서
      'MySQL' 서비스를 '수동', '중지'로 설정.


2. 서버 설정
   - MySQL Server의 관련 폴더, 한글 문자셋등을 설정합니다.
>>>>> "H:/soa9/mysql51/my.ini"로 저장(74, 77번라인 경로 수정)

# MySQL Server Instance Configuration File
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Generated by the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
#
#
# Installation Instructions
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# On Linux you can copy this file to /etc/my.cnf to set global options,
# mysql-data-dir/my.cnf to set server-specific options
# (@localstatedir@ for this installation) or to
# ~/.my.cnf to set user-specific options.
#
# On Windows you should keep this file in the installation directory
# of your server (e.g. C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y). To
# make sure the server reads the config file use the startup option
# "--defaults-file".
#
# To run run the server from the command line, execute this in a
# command line shell, e.g.
# mysqld --defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y\my.ini"
#
# To install the server as a Windows service manually, execute this in a
# command line shell, e.g.
# mysqld --install MySQLXY --defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y\my.ini"
#
# And then execute this in a command line shell to start the server, e.g.
# net start MySQLXY
#
#
# Guildlines for editing this file
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# In this file, you can use all long options that the program supports.
# If you want to know the options a program supports, start the program
# with the "--help" option.
#
# More detailed information about the individual options can also be
# found in the manual.
#
#
# CLIENT SECTION
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# The following options will be read by MySQL client applications.
# Note that only client applications shipped by MySQL are guaranteed
# to read this section. If you want your own MySQL client program to
# honor these values, you need to specify it as an option during the
# MySQL client library initialization.
#
[client]

port=3306

[mysql]

default-character-set=euckr


# SERVER SECTION
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# The following options will be read by the MySQL Server. Make sure that
# you have installed the server correctly (see above) so it reads this
# file.
#
[mysqld]

# The TCP/IP Port the MySQL Server will listen on
port=3306


#Path to installation directory. All paths are usually resolved relative to this.
basedir="H:/Android2/mysql51/"

#Path to the database root
datadir="H:/Android2/mysql51/data/"

# The default character set that will be used when a new schema or table is
# created and no character set is defined
default-character-set=euckr

# The default storage engine that will be used when create new tables when
default-storage-engine=INNODB

# Set the SQL mode to strict
sql-mode="STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION"

# The maximum amount of concurrent sessions the MySQL server will
# allow. One of these connections will be reserved for a user with
# SUPER privileges to allow the administrator to login even if the
# connection limit has been reached.
max_connections=100

# Query cache is used to cache SELECT results and later return them
# without actual executing the same query once again. Having the query
# cache enabled may result in significant speed improvements, if your
# have a lot of identical queries and rarely changing tables. See the
# "Qcache_lowmem_prunes" status variable to check if the current value
# is high enough for your load.
# Note: In case your tables change very often or if your queries are
# textually different every time, the query cache may result in a
# slowdown instead of a performance improvement.
query_cache_size=0

# The number of open tables for all threads. Increasing this value
# increases the number of file descriptors that mysqld requires.
# Therefore you have to make sure to set the amount of open files
# allowed to at least 4096 in the variable "open-files-limit" in
# section [mysqld_safe]
table_cache=256

# Maximum size for internal (in-memory) temporary tables. If a table
# grows larger than this value, it is automatically converted to disk
# based table This limitation is for a single table. There can be many
# of them.
tmp_table_size=9M


# How many threads we should keep in a cache for reuse. When a client
# disconnects, the client's threads are put in the cache if there aren't
# more than thread_cache_size threads from before.  This greatly reduces
# the amount of thread creations needed if you have a lot of new
# connections. (Normally this doesn't give a notable performance
# improvement if you have a good thread implementation.)
thread_cache_size=8

#*** MyISAM Specific options

# The maximum size of the temporary file MySQL is allowed to use while
# recreating the index (during REPAIR, ALTER TABLE or LOAD DATA INFILE.
# If the file-size would be bigger than this, the index will be created
# through the key cache (which is slower).
myisam_max_sort_file_size=100G

# If the temporary file used for fast index creation would be bigger
# than using the key cache by the amount specified here, then prefer the
# key cache method.  This is mainly used to force long character keys in
# large tables to use the slower key cache method to create the index.
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size=100G

# If the temporary file used for fast index creation would be bigger
# than using the key cache by the amount specified here, then prefer the
# key cache method.  This is mainly used to force long character keys in
# large tables to use the slower key cache method to create the index.
myisam_sort_buffer_size=18M

# Size of the Key Buffer, used to cache index blocks for MyISAM tables.
# Do not set it larger than 30% of your available memory, as some memory
# is also required by the OS to cache rows. Even if you're not using
# MyISAM tables, you should still set it to 8-64M as it will also be
# used for internal temporary disk tables.
key_buffer_size=11M

# Size of the buffer used for doing full table scans of MyISAM tables.
# Allocated per thread, if a full scan is needed.
read_buffer_size=64K
read_rnd_buffer_size=256K

# This buffer is allocated when MySQL needs to rebuild the index in
# REPAIR, OPTIMZE, ALTER table statements as well as in LOAD DATA INFILE
# into an empty table. It is allocated per thread so be careful with
# large settings.
sort_buffer_size=256K


#*** INNODB Specific options ***


# Use this option if you have a MySQL server with InnoDB support enabled
# but you do not plan to use it. This will save memory and disk space
# and speed up some things.
#skip-innodb

# Additional memory pool that is used by InnoDB to store metadata
# information.  If InnoDB requires more memory for this purpose it will
# start to allocate it from the OS.  As this is fast enough on most
# recent operating systems, you normally do not need to change this
# value. SHOW INNODB STATUS will display the current amount used.
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size=2M

# If set to 1, InnoDB will flush (fsync) the transaction logs to the
# disk at each commit, which offers full ACID behavior. If you are
# willing to compromise this safety, and you are running small
# transactions, you may set this to 0 or 2 to reduce disk I/O to the
# logs. Value 0 means that the log is only written to the log file and
# the log file flushed to disk approximately once per second. Value 2
# means the log is written to the log file at each commit, but the log
# file is only flushed to disk approximately once per second.
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1

# The size of the buffer InnoDB uses for buffering log data. As soon as
# it is full, InnoDB will have to flush it to disk. As it is flushed
# once per second anyway, it does not make sense to have it very large
# (even with long transactions).
innodb_log_buffer_size=1M

# InnoDB, unlike MyISAM, uses a buffer pool to cache both indexes and
# row data. The bigger you set this the less disk I/O is needed to
# access data in tables. On a dedicated database server you may set this
# parameter up to 80% of the machine physical memory size. Do not set it
# too large, though, because competition of the physical memory may
# cause paging in the operating system.  Note that on 32bit systems you
# might be limited to 2-3.5G of user level memory per process, so do not
# set it too high.
innodb_buffer_pool_size=18M

# Size of each log file in a log group. You should set the combined size
# of log files to about 25%-100% of your buffer pool size to avoid
# unneeded buffer pool flush activity on log file overwrite. However,
# note that a larger logfile size will increase the time needed for the
# recovery process.
innodb_log_file_size=10M

# Number of threads allowed inside the InnoDB kernel. The optimal value
# depends highly on the application, hardware as well as the OS
# scheduler properties. A too high value may lead to thread thrashing.
innodb_thread_concurrency=8

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[참고] UBuntu Linux MySql 5.1의 설치
1. 다운로드 설치
sudo aptitude install mysql-server or sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client

[참고]
sudo aptitude remove mysql-server or sudo apt-get remove mysql-server mysql-client

2. my.cnf 원본 파일 백업
$sudo cp /etc/mysql/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf.orig

3. my.cnf 파일 편집(utf-8 or euckr로 설정)
     root@ubuntu:~# gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf

    [client]
    default-character-set=utf8

    [mysqld]
    character-set-client-handshake=FALSE
    init_connect="SET collation_connection = utf8_general_ci"
    init_connect="SET NAMES utf8"
    default-character-set=utf8
    character-set-server=utf8
    collation-server=utf8_general_ci

    [mysqldump]
    default-character-set=utf8

    [mysql]
    default-character-set=utf8

4. mysql을 재시작
    $sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

5. 설치 확인
     1) 패스워드를 지정한 경우
          root@ubuntu:~# mysql -u root -p
          Enter password:  1234

    2) 패스워드를 지정하지 않은 경우
          root@ubuntu:~# mysql -u root

[우분투 소프트웨어 센터에서도 설치 가능]

※ 다른 컴퓨터의 MySQL 서버 접속
root@ubuntu:~# mysql -h 172.16.8.1 -u javauser -p1234 javadb(사용할 데이터베이스 기본 지정)